The treatment of spinal conditions requires great judgement and meticulous surgery. Minimally invasive techniques allow much of the spine to be approached through keyhole tubes minimising disruption to muscles. The placement of pedicle screws and interbody cages through this method also allows spinal fusion to be performed where necessary. Navigation techniques also minimise x-ray exposure to the patient during the case. Mr Hall has subspecialty training in the use of these techniques and understands where they can be best used to minimise patient pain and maximise recovery as well as where the limitations of techniques mean they are an inferior option that should not be used.